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Research has established that intensive and long term therapy are cost-effective

Decades of peer-reviewed and meta-reviewed studies demonstrate that intensive is a prudent public investment

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Controlled trial of psychoanalytic & cbt trial outcomes Leutzinger 2019
psychoanlysis and addiction
Fonagy 2012 Tavistock Adult Depression Study
Randomized Control Trial for psychoanalysis and CBT for chronic depression
Long term outcomes of trials for depression National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

Papers on efficacy of intensive and long-term psychotherapy

Abbass, Allan A., Giorgio A. Tasca, Helen-Maria Vasiliadis, Jessica
Spagnolo, David Kealy, Paul L. Hewitt, Catherine Hébert, Martin Drapeau & Norman Doidge 2020. Psychodynamic Therapy in Canada in the Era of Evidence-based Practice, Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, DOI: 10.1080/02668734.2020.1803390

Australian Psychoanalysis Society research and resources

Beutel ME, Leuzinger-Bohleber M, Rüger B, Bahrke U, Negele A, Haselbacher A, Fiedler G, Keller W, Hautzinger M. 2012. "Psychoanalytic and cognitive-behavior therapy of chronic depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial." Trials. 2012 Jul 26;13:117. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-13-117. PMID: 22834725; PMCID: PMC3480892.

Blomberg J, Lazar A, Sandell R. 2001. Long-Term Outcome of Long-Term Psychoanalytically Oriented Therapies: First Findings of the Stockholm Outcome of Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis Study. Psychother Res. 2001 Dec;11(4):361–82. [Google Scholar


Burkeman, Oliver. 2016. “Therapy wars: the revenge of Freud.” The Guardian January 7.

de Celis Sierra, M. and J. A. Méndez Ruiz. 2020. "The efficacy of psychoanalytical psychotherapy: rumors, certainties and controversies a decade after Shedler." Aperturas Psicoanalíticas, (63) (2020), e1, 1-29.


de Maat S, de Jonghe F, Schoevers R, Dekker J. 2009. The Effectiveness of Long-Term Psychoanalytic Therapy: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2009 Jan;17(1):1–23. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Doidge, N., Michael First, M.D.; John Oldham, M.D., Barry Simon, M.D. Annette Stevens, Jacqueline Burnshaw, M.A. M.D., Paul Mosher, M.D.,  & Lee Brauer, M.D.  1993. Survey and a Validation Study of DSM-III-R diagnoses, traumatic histories, family and treatment histories in the psychoanalytic patients in the United States.  Funded by the American Psychoanalytic Association. 

 ———; Simon B., Gilles, L., Ruskin, R. 1994. Characteristics of psychoanalytic patients under a nationalized health plan: DSM-III-R Diagnoses, Previous Treatment, and Childhood Traumata. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151:586–590.

———1995a. Psychoanalysis in America: Preliminary data. Presented to American Psychoanalytic Association meeting, New York, December.

———1995b. Empirical evidence for the core clinical concepts and efficacy of psychoanalytic psychotherapies: An overview. Appendix to the Report to Council of the Ontario Psychiatric Association and to Executive of the Section of Psychiatry, Ontario Medical Association on Guidelines and Standards for Medical (Psychiatric) Psychotherapy.

———. 1997. Empirical evidence for the efficacy of psychoanalytic psychotherapies and psychoanalysis: An overview. Psychoanalytic Inquiry 17 (suppl.):102–150.

——— 1997. Study of DSM-III-R diagnoses, traumatic histories, family and treatment histories, changes in treatment, in the psychoanalytic patients in Australia.

——— 1998. Empirical evidence for the core clinical concepts and

efficacy of psychoanalytic psychotherapies: An overview. In Standards and Guidelines for the Psychotherapies, ed. P. Cameron, J. Deadman, & J. Ennis. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pp. 80–142.

———; Freebury, R. 1998. Guidelines for the Practice of Individual psychodynamic Psychotherapy. In Standards and Guidelines for the Psychotherapies, ed. P. Cameron, J. Ennis, & J. Deadman, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pp. 44–79.

Doidge N, Simon B, Lancee WJ, et al. 2002. Psychoanalytic Patients in the U.S., Canada, and Australia: II. A DSM-III-R Validation Study. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. 2002;50(2):615-627. doi:10.1177/00030651020500021101

Fonagy, P., Rost, F., Carlyle, J. A., McPherson, S., Thomas, R., Pasco Fearon, R. M., Goldberg, D., & Taylor, D. 2015. Pragmatic randomized controlled trial of long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy for treatment-resistant depression: the Tavistock Adult Depression Study (TADS). World psychiatry : official journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA), 14(3), 312–321. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Gabbard, Glen O., Susan G. Lazar, John Hornberger, and David Spiegel. 1997. "The Economic Impact of Psychotherapy: A Review." Am J Psychiatry 154:2, February 1997.

Gonon, F. and P. H. Keller. 2021. "L’efficacité des psychothérapies inspirées par la psychanalyse : une revue systématique de la littérature scientifique récente." L'Encéphale 47(1): 49-57.

Lambert, M. J., Hansen, N. B., & Finch, A. E. 2001. Patient-focused research: Using patient outcome data to enhance treatment effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(2), 159–172. "Seventy-five percent of patients [out of 10,000 in data set] were predicted to improve only after receiving more than 40 treatment sessions in conjunction with other routine contacts, including medication in some cases."

Lanius and Tuhan. 2003. “Stage-Oriented Trauma Treatment Using Dialectical Behaviour Therapy.” Can J Psychiatry, 48 (2 March): 126-127.

Lazar, Susan G. 2010. Psychotherapy is worth it: a comprehensive review of its cost-effectiveness. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Pub.

Lazar, S. G. 2014. "The Cost-Effectiveness of Psychotherapy for the Major Psychiatric Diagnoses." Psychodynamic Psychiatry 42(3): 423-457.

Lazar, S. G.  2018. "The Place for Psychodynamic Therapy and Obstacles to Its Provision." Psychiatric Clinics of North America 41:2 193-+ DOI: 10.1016/j.psc.2018.01.004. JUN 2018

Leichsenring F, Leibing E. 2003. The Effectiveness of Psychodynamic Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy in the Treatment of Personality Disorders: A Meta-Analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2003 Jul;160(7):1223–32. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Leichsenring, Falk and Sven Rabung, PhD. 2008. “Effectiveness of Long-term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy A Meta-analysis“ JAMA, October 1, 2008—Vol 300, No. 13 pp. 1551-1565  [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Leichsenring F, Rabung S. 2011. Long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in complex mental disorders: update of a meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2011 Jul 1;199(1):15–22. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Leichsenring, F. and C. Steinert. 2018. "Towards an evidence-based unified psychodynamic protocol for emotional disorders." Journal of Affective Disorders 232 (Complete): 400-416.

Leichsenring, Falk, Allan Abbass, Mark J. Hilsenroth, Patrick Luyten, Thomas Munder, Sven Rabung, Christiane Steinert. 2018. “Gold Standards,” Plurality and Monocultures: The Need for Diversity in Psychotherapy." Frontiers in Psychiatry 9:159
DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00159. Download pdf:


Leichsenring F, Abbass A, Heim N, Keefe JR, Kisely S, Luyten P, Rabung S, Steinert C. 2023. The status of psychodynamic psychotherapy as an empirically supported treatment for common mental disorders - an umbrella review based on updated criteria. World Psychiatry. 2023 Jun;22(2):286-304. doi: 10.1002/wps.21104. PMID: 37159376; PMCID: PMC10168167.

Leuzinger-Bohleber M, Hautzinger M, Fiedler G, Keller W, Bahrke U, Kallenbach L, Kaufhold J, Ernst M, Negele A, Schoett M, Küchenhoff H, Günther F, Rüger B, Beutel M. Outcome of Psychoanalytic and Cognitive-Behavioural Long-Term Therapy with Chronically Depressed Patients: A Controlled Trial with Preferential and Randomized Allocation. Can J Psychiatry. 2019 Jan;64(1):47-58. doi: 10.1177/0706743718780340. Epub 2018 Nov 1. PMID: 30384775; PMCID: PMC6364135.

Lewis, Katie. 2023. Psychodynamic Psychotherapies Work: The Compelling Evidence Base

October 31, 2023

Lilliengren, P. 2019. Comprehensive compilation of randomized controlled trials involving psychodynamic treatments and interventions.

Lindfors O, Knekt P, Heinonen E, Härkänen T, Virtala E; Helsinki Psychotherapy Study Group. 2014. The effectiveness of short- and long-term psychotherapy on personality functioning during a 5-year follow-up. J Affect Disord. 2015 Mar 1;173:31-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.10.039. Epub 2014 Nov 6. PMID: 25462393.

Lindfors O, Knekt P, Lehtonen J, Virtala E, Maljanen T, Härkänen T. 2018. Effectiveness of psychoanalysis and long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy on personality and social functioning 10 years after start of treatment. Psychiatry Res. 2019 Feb;272:774-783. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.12.082. Epub 2018 Dec 18. PMID: 30832198.

McPherson S, Hengartner MP. Long-term outcomes of trials in the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence depression guideline. BJPsych Open. 2019;5(5):e81. Published 2019 Sep 9. doi:10.1192/bjo.2019.65​

Norcross, JC, Wampold, BE. 2018. A new therapy for each patient: Evidence‐based relationships and responsiveness. J. Clin. Psychol. 74: 1889 1906.

Nordmo, Magnus, Jon T. Monsen, Per Andreas Høglend & Ole Andre Solbakken. 2020. Investigating the dose–response effect in open-ended psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Research. DOI: 10.1080/10503307.2020.1861359

Plakun, Eric M. 2023. Responding to the Mental Health Crisis: Is There a Role for Psychodynamic Treatments?  October 25, 2023.

Sandell R. 2012. Research on Outcomes of Psychoanalysis and Psychoanalysis-Derived Psychotherapies. In: Gabbard GO, Litowitz BE, Williams P, editors. Textbook of psychoanalysis [Internet] Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Pub; 2012. pp. 385–404. Available from: . cited 2017 Sep 23. [Google Scholar]

Seligman ME. 1995. “The effectiveness of psychotherapy. The Consumer Reports study.” Am Psychol. Dec 50 (12):965-74.

Shedler, Jonathan. 2010. “The Efficacy of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy.” American Psychologist 65(2):98-109 DOI: 10.1037/a0018378. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Tasca, G. A., Town, J. M., Abbass, A., & Clarke, J. 2018. “Will publicly funded psychotherapy in Canada be evidence based? A review of what makes psychotherapy work and a proposal.Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne. 59 (4): 293-300.

Taylor D, Carlyle J, McPherson S, Rost F, Thomas R, Fonagy P. 2012. Tavistock Adult Depression Study (TADS): a randomised controlled trial of psychoanalytic psychotherapy for treatment-resistant/treatment-refractory forms of depression. BMC Psychiatry [Internet] 2012 Dec;12(1) Available from: [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Town JM, Diener MJ, Abbass A, Leichsenring F, Driessen E, Rabung S. A meta-analysis of psychodynamic psychotherapy outcomes: Evaluating the effects of research-specific procedures. Psychotherapy. 2012;49(3):276–90. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Verma M, Vijayakrishnan A.2018.  Psychoanalytic psychotherapy in addictive disorders. Indian J Psychiatry. 2018 Feb;60(Suppl 4):S485-S489. doi: 10.4103/psychiatry. Indian J. Psychiatry 16_18. PMID: 29540918; PMCID: PMC5844159.

Villela, Renata. 2019. Long-Term Psychotherapy Jeopardized in Ontario. 25 Jul

Volume 54, Issue 15

Decades of research shows the cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy

Please help us prevent the privatization of this essential form of mental health care

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